May 3rd Marks 1 Year Anniversary of 2018 Eruption
HVO geologists recall their first day of the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption
With the one-year anniversary of the onset of Kīlauea Volcano’s 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption upon us, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff, like many Hawaiʻi residents, are reflecting on this historic event.
On May 3, 2018—two days after HVO issued a notice that an eruption on Kīlauea was possible—HVO geologists began their day with an 8 a.m. overflight of the volcano’s East Rift Zone.
The crater in Puʻu ʻŌʻō had drained three days earlier, leaving a large empty pit and questions as to where magma might head next. Earthquakes indicated that magma was migrating into the lower East Rift Zone, so the overflight included photographic and thermal surveys all the way to the eastern tip of the Island of Hawaiʻi. Experts saw nothing unusual.
Returning to HVO in the afternoon, staff settled in to write their reports. As they did, HVO technicians working on field instruments near Leilani Estates periodically informed staff of their status via radio. Around 4:30 p.m., they reported steam within the subdivision, and moments later, confirmed that they had seen lava.
The HVO geology team immediately gathered gear for a helicopter overflight. Knowing that they could be in the field all night, they packed extra water, batteries and other equipment. About 20 minutes later, the team was in the air, flying down the East Rift Zone towards Leilani Estates.
As the helicopter approached the lower East Rift Zone, geologists could see gas and smoke rising from the forest. Reaching Leilani Estates, the crew circled the source of the plume and got a clear view of lava erupting onto the surface. Large gas bubbles were bursting through viscous orange lava oozing from a fissure that had severed Mohala Street.
With an erupting vent in a residential neighborhood, the team needed to get accurate information to emergency managers right away. Circling the fissure, they transmitted GPS coordinates, along with photos and video, back to HVO staff who were communicating with Hawaiʻi County Civil Defense from the observatory.
Around 6:30 p.m., as fissure 1 was dying, the team was dropped just outside the subdivision, where they joined other HVO staff who had arrived in vehicles. The rest of that night geologists drove through Leilani Estates monitoring multiple enlarging steam cracks and keeping the observatory and Civil Defense updated on changes.
Around 1 a.m., fissure 2 opened in a driveway on Makamae Street, where geologists could see pulsating lava bubbles and spattering migrate toward the road as the fissure lengthened. This fissure was active for four hours, escalating in intensity and throwing incandescent spatter in large arcuate paths over adjacent powerlines and onto the road. After the larger bursts, the crew carefully collected samples of the fresh spatter for chemical analyses that would provide clues to the source of the lava.
After fissure 2 died down around 5:15 a.m., the team continued to circle the subdivision watching for any new activity. At dawn, they discovered increased fuming from a crack cutting Kaupili Street. Thick white fume was pulsing every 10-20 seconds, and geologists could feel an ominous deep rumble underground that seemed to slowly get closer.
Within minutes, the fume enveloped the crew in a whiteout, and gas alarms beeped loudly due to the high sulfur dioxide concentration—a clear sign that magma was close to the surface. Their gas masks protected them, but they had to hastily retreat a hundred meters (yards) to regain visibility.
Through the opaque white fume, they reported hearing the distinctive sounds of rushing gas, along with the pounding rhythm of bubbles bursting at the surface. Fissure 3 had started, so they transmitted the time and GPS coordinates to the observatory.
The fissure cut through the pavement, but also went directly under an adjacent home, which was rapidly burned. It was one of more than 700 structures eventually destroyed in the eruption.
The next HVO field crew arrived at 6 a.m., and together the teams documented the start of fissure 3. Around 7:15 a.m., the new crew took over monitoring duties, and the initial team drove back to their offices to write reports, recharge batteries, and rest before our next shift. That ended the first day of the 2018 eruption and marked the start of USGS scientists monitoring Kīlauea around the clock for the next three months.
Volcano Watch is a weekly article and activity update written by US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and affiliates. This week’s article is by HVO geologist Matt Patrick.
Volcano Activity Updates
Kῑlauea Volcano is not erupting and its USGS Volcano Alert level remains at NORMAL.
Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of Kīlauea’s deep East Rift Zone (ERZ) magma reservoir. Sulfur dioxide emission rates on the ERZ and at Kīlauea’s summit remain low.
Four earthquakes with three or more felt reports occurred in Hawaiʻi this past week: a magnitude-3.4 quake 26 km (16 mi) northeast of Hōnaunau-Nāpōʻopoʻo at 7 km (4 mi) depth on May 1 at 1:50 a.m. HST; a magnitude-2.6 quake 9 km (6 mi) southeast of Waimea at 13 km (8 mi) depth on April 30 at 6:37 p.m. HST; a magnitude-1.6 quake 13 km (8 mi) northeast of Pāhala at 32 km (20 mi) depth on April 27 at 5:26 p.m. HST; and a magnitude-4.2 quake 16 km (10 mi) southeast of Volcano Village at 7 km (4 mi) depth on April 27 at 5:26 p.m. HST.
Hazards remain at the lower ERZ and summit of Kīlauea. Residents and visitors near the 2018 fissures, lava flows, and summit collapse area should heed Hawai‘i County Civil Defense and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park closures and warnings. HVO continues to closely monitor Kīlauea for any sign of increased activity.
The USGS Volcano Alert level for Mauna Loa remains at NORMAL.